By Deborah K. Reed
Middle level teachers’ perceptions of interim reading assessments: An exploratory study of data-based decision making
This study explored the data-based decision making of 12 teachers in grades 6–8 who were asked about their perceptions and use of three required interim measures of reading performance: oral reading fluency (ORF), retell, and a benchmark comprised of released state test items. Focus group participants reported they did not believe the benchmark or ORF tests accurately reflected students’ comprehension abilities. Teachers held more favorable opinions of retell but admitted improvising their use of the measure rather than following mandated implementation procedures. Participants reported that only summative state assessment scores were used to plan appropriate instruction and only for large groups. Results suggest the need for improved support for data-based decision making and the development of technically adequate interim measures with relevance to the teachers expected to use them.
Reed, D.K. (2015). Middle level teachers’ perceptions of interim reading assessments: An exploratory study of data-based decision making. Research in Middle Level Education, 38(6), 1-13. Retrieved from https://www.amle.org/portals/0/pdf/rmle/rmle_vol38_no6.pdf
To graduate from high school and become competitive in the workplace and other postsecondary endeavors, adolescents are required to meet rigorous standards, such as the Common Core State Standards. To meet such standards, teachers must teach students to read and make sense of increasingly complex content-area expository text. Secondary teachers, however, face several challenges that make it difficult to prepare students adequately to read and comprehend content area text. In this article, a practical evidence-based reading strategy instructional routine to enhance adolescent students’comprehension of expository text is presented.
Wexler, J. A., Reed, D. K., Mitchell, M., Doyle, B., & Clancy, E. (2015). Implementing an evidence-based instructional routine to enhance comprehension of expository text. Intervention in School and Clinic, 50, 142-149. doi: 10.1177/1053451214542042
In order to enhance the basal vocabulary instruction for kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties, lessons provided in typical curricular materials can be supplemented with instructional elements derived from research. This paper addresses how teachers can add 15 minutes of higher order instructional activities to daily reading lessons to deepen students’ understanding of target vocabulary and offer multiple exposures to the words in different contexts. This enhanced basal vocabulary instruction model was field tested in two configurations of the kindergarten reading block to refine the procedures. These experiences provide insights into how the model can feasibly be implemented in small- or whole-group formats to improve students’ learning and engagement.
*Lenfest, A., & Reed, D.K. (2015). Enhancing basal vocabulary instruction in kindergarten. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 30, 43-50. doi: 10.1111/ldrp.12050
“Our teachers...don’t give us no help, no nothin’”: Juvenile offenders’ perceptions of academic support
This qualitative study investigated the educational experiences that shaped juvenile offenders’ perceptions of the academic support they received in juvenile justice (JJ) settings and their public schools. We conducted interviews with students and JJ school personnel, two focus groups, classroom observations, and student surveys. Juvenile offenders characterized their teachers as supportive or unsupportive based on whether they made proactive efforts to help students learn. Disconnection with school occurred when students perceived teachers did not care and when there were difficulties in earning or transferring credits. Findings suggest that juvenile offenders demonstrate academic resiliency and a continued desire to pursue education.
Reed, D.K., & Wexler, J. (2014). “Our teachers…don’t give us no help, no nothin’”: Juvenile offenders’ perceptions of academic support. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 31, 188-218. doi: 10.1080/0886571X.2014.943568
Explicitly communicating objectives is a tenet of effective instruction for students with learning difficulties, yet the practice is often overlooked in research. This case study of a novice middle school geography teacher illustrates how the qualitative and quantitative differences in the ways a teacher communicates the learner expectation can influence both student learning and behavior. Contrary to concerns that objective-led lessons result in student passivity and superficial learning, lessons that maintained a focus on a well-crafted objective actually increased student engagement and fostered opportunities for deeper thinking. Examples of the three steps in clearly communicating objectives are provided in connection with teacher-student dialogue, highlighting what happens when the steps are and are not present in the instruction. (Contains 3 figures.)
Reed, D. K. (2012). Clearly communicating the learning objective matters! Middle School Journal, 43(5), 16-24.
Many students with reading difficulties in grades 4 through 12 experience challenges in understanding and learning from text. Some of these learners have demonstrated reading challenges from the early grades and have not acquired successful reading skills. Others were adequate readers in the early grades when word reading was the focus and when text complexity was minimal. Improving reading outcomes for both persistently poor readers and relatively newly challenged readers requires school-wide instructional practices integrated into content area instruction in math, science, and social studies. This article describes these practices and provides examples of how to teach reading comprehension within the content area.
Reed, D. K., & Vaughn, S. (2012). Comprehension instruction for students with reading disabilities in grades 4 through 12. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 10, 17-33.
Background The middle school team project described here was part of a larger district initiative, started in 2001 by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) to create a systemic model ofschool improvement for increasing student achievement in low-performing schools. Academic teams were established as the conduit for ensuring that the district planning and improvement efforts changed teacher practices. The focus of this article is the middle school team activities that occurred during the 2004-2005 school year, the ...
Reed, D. K., & Groth, C. (2009). Academic teams promote cross-curricular applications that improve learning outcomes. Middle School Journal, 40(3), 12-19.
Addresses a concern that integrating packaged technology (such as Accelerated Reader) is taking precedence over maintaining theoretically sound instructional practices. Addresses several arguments against the use and effectiveness of the Accelerated Reader program. Challenges educators to read the results and analysis of the National Assessment of Educational Progress reading assessments and to look at other recognized reading programs. (SG)
(Reed) Biggers, D. K. (2001). The argument against Accelerated Reader. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 45(1), 72–75.
This resource is a compilation of three documents that support the teaching of spelling in today's schools: a discussion of "Why Spelling Instruction Matters", a checklist for evaluating a spelling program, and tables of Common Core State Standards that are linked to spelling instruction. "Why Spelling Instruction Matters" explains the importance of spelling to students' reading abilities, describes models of spelling development, and explains common approaches to spelling instruction. It offers supporting figures and diagrams as well as appendices with additional information and lists of resources helpful to practitioners. Using the information from "Why Spelling Instruction Matters", the Center on Instruction created two companion documents as tools for administrators and teachers. The items in "A Checklist for Evaluating a Spelling Program" are based on research outlined in the main document and offer a quick reference to the key elements for determining students' spelling abilities and teaching basic and more complex skills. The second companion tool, "Tables of Common Core State Standards Linked to Spelling", connects the information in Why Spelling Instruction Matters to grade-level expectations. The document also includes guidance about how to read and use the information in the tables. Each document contains figures, footnotes and references.
Reed, D. K. (2012). Why teach spelling? Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
Bringing literacy strategies into content instruction: Professional learning for secondary-level teachers
This document provides research-based guidance on academic literacy instruction in the content areas, specifically focusing on the effective use of text in content areas. It reviews the research evidence about content-area literacy instruction for adolescents and suggests ways teachers can use content-area texts to enable students to understand the vocabulary and concepts they contain. This document also provides a brief synopsis of working with adult learners and the most promising professional development practices identified in research. Intended for use by literacy specialists and other technical assistance providers in their work with states to improve educational policy and practice in adolescent literacy, it describes ways to assist states, districts, and schools in helping teachers develop the kinds of pedagogical skills needed to implement instructional practices that have been shown to improve student literacy outcomes.
Kosanovich, M. L., Reed, D. K., & Miller, D. H. (2010). Bringing literacy strategies into content instruction: Professional learning for secondary-level teachers. Portsmouth, NH: RMC Research Corporation, Center on Instruction.
Effective instruction for middle school student with reading difficulties: The reading teacher’s sourcebook
Denton, C. A., Vaughn, S., Wexler, J., Bryan, D., & Reed, D. (2012). Effective instruction for middle school student with reading difficulties: The reading teacher’s sourcebook. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Grounded in the best current knowledge, this book shows how to implement response to intervention (RTI) in middle and high school contexts. Detailed guidelines are presented for teaching reading comprehension, vocabulary, and other aspects of literacy across the content areas, and for providing effective interventions for students who require additional support. The authors describe RTI procedures that are specifically tailored to the needs of struggling adolescent learners and that take into account the challenges and logistics of ...
+ Reed, D. K., Wexler, J., & Vaughn, S. (2012). RTI for reading at the secondary level: Recommended literacy practices and remaining questions. New York: Guildford Press.
This chapter includes three sections addressing historical, current, and emerging issues in teaching reading comprehension to students with disabilities. The first section reviews special education law, statistics, and practices as they relate to middle and school. The second section reviews the information presented in the content area chapters and discusses how the information presented works with students in special education but receiving the majority of their content instruction (80 % or more of the day) in general education settings. The final section presents an overview of effective instructional practices in light of new issues being raised with instructional fidelity and the need to have students more actively engaged in reading diverse texts, including those that are computer-based.
Reed, D. K., & Santi, K. L. (2015). Special education in middle and high school. In Kristi L. Santi, & Deborah K. Reed (Eds.), Improving comprehension for middle and high school students. New York, NY: Springer.
Reed, D. K, & Vaughn, S. (2010). Reading interventions for older students. In T. A. Glover & S. Vaughn (Eds.), The Promise of Response to Intervention: Evaluating Current Science and Practice (pp. 143-186). New York: Guilford Press.
Reed, D. K., & Parhms, P. (2014). Delivering explicit vocabulary instruction: Using the Frayer Model. Middle School Matters Institute: Middle Grades Research Digest. Available at http://www.meadowscenter.org/middle-grades-research/item/march-2014
Everyone is appalled at reports of rampant cheating among high school and college students, primarily by cutting and pasting from the Internet without providing citations. There are situations in real life where an individual suffered serious consequences for plagiarizing work. Many schools incorporate such scenarios in character education programs. The lessons encourage students to examine the actions of those who claimed someone else's work as their own, as well as the actions of those who reported the incidents. The message for children and adolescents is that plagiarism is unacceptable, and knowing about but not reporting forms of cheating is just as wrong. In this article, the author illustrates through a scenario why educators often do not uphold these same standards when confronted with "cheating" among their colleagues. She suggests that as professionals and adult models, educators need to be more diligent about honoring the work of colleagues in their field. She concludes that educators are stewards of the trust and respect afforded their profession, so copyright cannot be approached as a matter of personal choice or something that applies only to students.
Reed, D. K. (2011). Plagiarism isn’t just an issue for students. Journal of Staff Development, 32(1), 47-49.
In this article, the author discusses how to stop running out of time for writing across the curriculum and features the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory that helps low-performing schools improve writing by incorporating writing instruction across the curriculum. The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's systemic work to improve low-performing schools uses a sustained, collaborative model that supports a schoolwide effort to improve writing. In the lab's Professional Teaching and Learning Cycle (PTLC), a literacy specialist facilitates grade-level team meetings to help teachers learn to incorporate writing instruction across the curriculum. Although using the model has not been directly correlated to gains in student achievement, research has shown that writing across the curriculum improves students' comprehension and retention of content. The author describes how the model is implemented to the teams of five to six teachers and how the PTLC process helped teachers incorporate writing across the curriculum. (Contains 3 online resources.)
Reed, D. K. (2006). Time’s Up: How to stop running out of time for writing across the curriculum. Journal of Staff Development, 27(3), 36-42.
Secondary reading instruction (Part 2): Deepening middle school content-area learning with vocabulary and comprehension strategies
Reed, D. K. (2014). Secondary reading instruction (Part 2): Deepening middle school content-area learning with vocabulary and comprehension strategies. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, The Iris Center, Peabody School of Education. Available at: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/sec-rdng2/
Reed, D. K. (2012). Secondary reading instruction: Teaching vocabulary and comprehension in the content areas. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, The Iris Center, Peabody School of Education. Available at: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/sec_rdng/chalcycle.htm
High school social studies teachers face unique challenges in helping their students learn independently from text in their discipline. In this article, a set of research-based practices that couple independent student reading with high-quality instruction proven to improve content learning for high school nonnative English speakers is provided. Specific examples of each practice within a social studies unit are used to illustrate how to promote independent student reading and understanding that is integrated with the content.
Swanson, E.A., Reed, D.K., & Vaughn, S. (in press). Research-based lessons that support student independent reading in social studies. Preventing School Failure. doi: 10.1080/1045988X.2016.1164116
By Jessica S. Folsom
School reading performance and the extended school day policy in Florida
Key Findings:Florida law requires the 100 lowest performing elementary schools in reading to extend the school day by one hour to provide supplemental reading instruction. This study found that those schools were smaller than other elementary schools and served a higher proportion of racial/ethnic minority students and students eligible for the school lunch program. The lowest performing schools reported increasing the number of minutes of reading instruction provided to students, increasing staff, and providing instruction in the extra hour that differed from instruction during the rest of the day. When growth in performance is measured, initially low scores generally rise, even in the absence of an intervention, because of natural year-to-year variations. While average school reading performance improved among the lowest performing schools, the increase did not exceed the small year-to-year variations expected when measuring initially low student performance.
Folsom, J. S., Petscher, Y., Osborne-Lampkin, L., Cooley, S., Herrera, S., Partridge, M., & Smith, K. (2016). School reading performance and the extended school day policy in Florida (REL 2016–141). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from
Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?
Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (a) to examine changes from baseline through 2 years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers’ differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; and (b) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of 3 cohorts of the teachers’ students (n = 416). We observed teachers’ instruction and assessed students on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. We observed no change for vocabulary. The results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development.
Al Otaiba, S., Folsom, J. S., Wanzek, J., Greulich, L., Waesche, J., Schatschneider, C. & Connor, C. M. (2015). Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction? Reading and Writing Quarterly, 0:1-23. doi: 10.1080/10573569.2015.1021060.
A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement
Highlights: This report reviews studies that have investigated the relationships between principal characteristics (including precursors, behaviors, and leadership styles) and student achievement. Only one experimental study examined a principal intervention designed to improve student achievement. It found that grade 8 students randomly assigned to have one-on-one conversations with the principal scored higher on the state English language arts test. An additional 38 quantitative and 2 mixed method studies provided mixed evidence of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement; 11 qualitative studies mirrored the quantitative findings.
Osborne-Lampkin, L., Folsom, J. S., and Herrington, C. D. (2015). A systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement (REL 2016–091). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/edlabs.
To wait in Tier 1 or intervene immediately: A randomized experiment examining first grade Response to Intervention (RTI) in reading
This randomized controlled experiment compared the efficacy of two Response to Intervention (RTI) models - Typical RTI and Dynamic RTI - and included 34 first-grade classrooms (n = 522 students) across 10 socio-economically and culturally diverse schools. Typical RTI was designed to follow the two-stage RTI decision rules that wait to assess response to Tier 1 in many districts, whereas Dynamic RTI provided Tier 2 or Tier 3 interventions immediately according to students' initial screening results. Interventions were identical across conditions except for when intervention began. Reading assessments included letter-sound, word, and passage reading, and teacher-reported severity of reading difficulties. An intent-to-treat analysis using multi-level modeling indicated an overall effect favoring the Dynamic RTI condition (d = .36); growth curve analyses demonstrated that students in Dynamic RTI showed an immediate score advantage, and effects accumulated across the year.
Al Otaiba, S. Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Greulich, L., Wanzek, J., & Schatschneider, C. (2014). To wait in Tier 1 or intervene immediately: A randomized experiment examining first grade Response to Intervention (RTI) in reading. Exceptional Children, 81(1), 11-27. doi: 10.1177/0014402914532234.
Comprehensive beginning reading
Allor, J., Al Otaiba, S., Ortiz, M, & Folsom, J. S. (2014). Comprehensive beginning reading. In D. Browder & F. Spooner (Eds.), MORE Language Arts, Math, and Science for Students with Severe Disabilities. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Exploring the amount and type of writing instruction during language arts instruction in kindergarten classrooms
The objective of this exploratory investigation was to examine the nature of writing instruction in kindergarten classrooms and to describe student writing outcomes at the end of the school year. Participants for this study included 21 teachers and 238 kindergarten children from nine schools. Classroom teachers were videotaped once each in the fall and winter during the 90 min instructional block for reading and language arts to examine time allocation and the types of writing instructional practices taking place in the kindergarten classrooms. Classroom observation of writing was divided into student-practice variables (activities in which students were observed practicing writing or writing independently) and teacher-instruction variables (activities in which the teacher was observed providing direct writing instruction). In addition, participants completed handwriting fluency, spelling, and writing tasks. Large variability was observed in the amount of writing instruction occurring in the classroom, the amount of time kindergarten teachers spent on writing and in the amount of time students spent writing. Marked variability was also observed in classroom practices both within and across schools and this fact was reflected in the large variability noted in kindergartners' writing performance.
Puranik, C. S., Al Otaiba, S., Folsom, J. S., & Greulich, L. (2014). Exploring the amount and type of writing instruction during language arts instruction in kindergarten classrooms. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27 (2), 213-236.
Language, literacy, and attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders
We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children's written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children's grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers' responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children's spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers' responsiveness for writing development.
Kim, Y-S., Al Otaiba, S., Folsom, J. S., & Greulich, L. (2013). Language, literacy, and attentional behaviors, and instructional quality predictors of written composition for first graders. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 461-469. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2013.01.001
Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences
This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.
Al Otaiba, S., Lake, V. E., Greulich, L., Folsom, J. S., & Guidry, L. (2012). Preparing beginning reading teachers: An experimental comparison of initial early literacy field experiences. Reading and Writing, 25(1), 109-129. doi: 10.1007/s11145-010-9250-2
Relations among student attention behaviors, teacher practices, and beginning word reading skill
The role of student attention for predicting kindergarten word reading was investigated among 432 students. Using Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behavior Rating Scale behavior rating scores, the authors conducted an exploratory factor analysis, which yielded three distinct factors that reflected selective attention. In this study, the authors focused on the role of one of these factors, which they labeled attention-memory, for predicting reading performance. Teacher ratings of attention-memory predicted word reading above and beyond the contribution of phonological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. In addition, the relations between four teacher practices and attention ratings for predicting reading performance were examined. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors found significant interactions between student attention and teacher practices observed during literacy instruction. In general, as ratings of attention improved, better kindergarten word reading performance was associated with high levels of classroom behavior management. However, better word reading performance was not associated with high levels of teacher task orienting. A significant three-way interaction was also found among attention, individualized instruction, and teacher task redirections. The role of regulating kindergarten student attention to support beginning word reading skill development is discussed.
Sáez, L., Folsom, J. S., Al Otaiba, S., & Schatschneider, C. (2012). Relations among student attention behaviors, teacher practices, and beginning word reading skill. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(5), 418-432. doi: 10.1177/0022219411431243
Assessment data-informed guidance to individualize kindergarten reading instruction: Findings from a cluster-randomized control field trial
The purpose of this cluster-randomized control field trial was to was to examine the extent to which kindergarten teachers could learn a promising instructional strategy, wherein kindergarten reading instruction was differentiated based upon students' ongoing assessments of language and literacy skills and documented child characteristic by instruction (CXI) interactions; and to test the efficacy of this differentiated reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students from culturally diverse backgrounds. The study involved 14 schools and included 23 treatment (n = 305 students) and 21 contrast teacher (n = 251 students). Teachers in the contrast condition received only a baseline professional development that included a researcher-delivered summer day-long workshop on individualized instruction. Data sources included parent surveys, individually administered child assessments of language, cognitive, and reading skills and videotapes of classroom instruction. Using Hierarchical Multivariate Linear Modeling (HMLM), we found students in treatment classrooms outperformed students in the contrast classrooms on a latent measure of reading skills, comprised of letter-word reading, decoding, alphabetic knowledge, and phonological awareness (ES = .52). Teachers in both conditions provided small group instruction, but teachers in the treatment condition provided significantly more individualized instruction. Our findings extend research on the efficacy of teachers using Individualized Student Instruction to individualize instruction based upon students' language and literacy skills in first through third grade. Findings are discussed regarding the value of professional development related to differentiating core reading instruction and the challenges of using Response to Intervention approaches to address students' needs in the areas of reading in general education contexts.
Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Folsom, J. S., Greulich, L., Meadows, J., & Li, Z. (2011). Assessment data-informed guidance to individualize kindergarten reading instruction: Findings from a cluster-randomized control field trial. Elementary School Journal, 111(4), 535-560. doi: 10.1086/659031
Identifying and intervening with beginning readers who are at-risk for dyslexia: Advances in individualized classroom instruction
Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Foorman, B., Schatschneider, C., Greulich, L., & Folsom, J. S. (2009). Identifying and intervening with beginning readers who are at-risk for dyslexia: Advances in individualized classroom instruction. Perspectives, Fall, 13-19.
Implementing response to intervention: The synergy of beginning reading instruction and early intervening services
The primary purpose of this chapter is to describe a synergistic "hybrid" model of Response to Intervention (RtI) that combines individualized effective Tier 1 classroom instruction with powerful early intervening services. First, we provide an overview and explain how RtI traditionally has been conceptualized. Next, we illustrate how to implement a hybrid model that focuses on beginning reading instruction and also incorporates additional school-level resources. Finally, we will discuss implementation issues related to identifying children who need additional intervention and propose directions for future research.
Al Otaiba, S., Connor, C. M., Foorman, B., Greulich, L. & Folsom J. S. (2009). Implementing response to intervention: The synergy of beginning reading instruction and early intervening services. In T. E. Scruggs & M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Policy and practice: Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (vol. 22). Bingley, UK: Emerald.
White Papers from Collaborators
Schmidt, R., & Thein, A. H. (2015). Strong girls read strong books: Selecting texts and developing reading and response practices in an after school book club. Iowa City, IA: Iowa Reading Research Center. Available at: http://www.iowareadingresearch.org/documents/Strong-Girls-Read-Strong-Books.pdf